Bhagat Singh (IPA: [p????t? s????] ( listen) 27/28 September 1907 ? 23 March 1931)[a] was an Indian socialist considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. He is often referred to as “Shaheed Bhagat Singh”, the word “Shaheed” meaning “martyr” in a number of South Asian and Middle Eastern languages. Born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj, as a teenager Singh studied European revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies. He became involved in numerous revolutionary organisations, and quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to become one of its main leaders, eventually changing its name to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928.